As we enter the last week of August, we turn our attention to fall. Although we still have a month until the equinox and the official arrival of autumn, now is the time to plant the last few seeds of quick-growing, cold loving vegetables. That list of cool season crops that we planted includes:
Mustard greens – We directed seeded many varieties ranging from mild Spinach ustard, to dark burgundy Red Giant, and frilly Ruby Streaks.
Asian greens – We will harvest baby greens in mid-September and hopefully a few full size Pac Choy and Tat Soi that seem to be highly prized by gardeners.
Spinach – Oh spinach, we have missed you in our garden! We have held off on direct seeding spinach until late summer, but now it looks as if we will be harvesting plenty iron-rich leafy greens from almost every student plot.
Lettuce – We are choosing to plant varieties that can be harvested with the “cut-and-come-again” technique. Read below to learn more.
Mache, swiss chard, arugula and cilantro also made it into our direct seeded fall crops.
We love the cut-and-come-again technique for continuously harvesting an abundance of leafy greens in fall. Here are a few sketches that sweetly illustrate the technique:
One of our second-year CTG students, Ute, has perfected the art of cut-and-come-again harvesting. Ute planted her first arugula seeds during the first week of class, and within less than a month she was snipping off tender arugula leaves. Arugula and baby kale from Ute’s garden were the first garden harvest we enjoyed munching on. And now we are coming full circle, as first-year students remember Ute’s arugula and are now inspired to try out the cut-and-come-again technique in their own plots.
We dedicated this week to learning food preservation techniques to process the bounty of our gardens into nourishing treats come wintertime.
We had the honor of having Jess, the Vermont Community Garden Network’s Executive Director, lead a hands-on canning workshop for both of the Community Teaching Garden classes. Jess has been sharing her preserved food with VCGN staff for many years – from pickled beets, to habanero and carrot salsa, homemade ketchup, and juniper berry cherry jam – Jess is skilled in the world of canning.
Students brought in harvest from their gardens – mostly zucchini, summer squash, and cucumbers, but also a few peppers, string beans, and culinary herbs. After an introduction on the canning process and a Q & A to respond to students’ worries about canning, Jess divided us up into several teams to wash, peel, chop, measure, stir, boil and prep all the necessary ingredients for making refrigerator pickles (the quick version that doesn’t require a boiling bath) and canned pickles (with cukes and mixed vegetables).
Students received an easy to follow handout with guidelines and recipes for canning vegetables. We share that resource with you here – ctgcanninghandout-2016.
As for the lesson on agroforesty, here’s what I gleaned:
An edible forest is designed using two parameters. One is structure, the layers that make up the forest composition. The second is plant archetypes, the polyculture that works together to create a nutrient rich system.
The agroforest is made up of an overstory, an understory, a shrub layer, an herbaceous layer, a rhizomatic layer, and a vining component. We quickly discovered that each of these categories are loose and relative to the other crops housed within the system. While the red currant bush is most commonly used in the shrub layer, it could easily serve as an overstory in an edible forest of a smaller scale.
With regard to the plants, there are three important archetypes to include: nitrogen fixers, dynamic accumulators, and insectaries & nectaries. Nitrogen fixers have the capacity to pull nitrogen out of the air and send it down into the soil, providing nitrogen for itself and allowing that nitrogen to be captured by nearby plants so long as its needs are met. Dynamic accumulators have long tap roots that reach down into the earth and pull nutrients up into the top soil where it can be accessed by shorter root systems. Nectaries keep non-desirable insects away, insectaries attract the beneficials. Meghan suggested that gardens and edible forests alike should have flowering plants through the length of the season. These flowers should be diverse in terms of color and shape so as to attract the greatest number of beneficial insects.
It’s a fruitful moment, rounding the corner to late summer now. With each visit to the garden, I am amazed by the generous green jungle that has emerged from the beds that were bare just three months ago.
It’s easy to forget about the little things when the garden gets so big. The little things – those little pollinators so crucial to the fruit bearing wonder of the moment. For the tomato, the potato, the eggplant, and the blueberry, it takes a particular pollinator to unlock the pollen that facilitates the plant’s reproduction. According to biologist Anne Leonard, with buzz pollination, ‘the flower is almost like playing hard to get.’