Week 15: A Lesson on Agroforestry

08-17-2016 CTGTT Sunflower, tomato harvest
Amidst late summer tomato and sunflower harvests, we welcomed a visit from Meghan Giroux of Vermont Edible Landscapes.

 

08-17-2016 CTGTT Megan in the edible forest
Meghan, among many other things, designed and executed an edible forest corner of the Community Teaching Garden at Tommy Thompson. Here’s Meghan in the corner speaking of the need for this style of planting — perennial crops planted to mimic the structure of a forest — to spread through the entire garden. One giant, shared edible forest, she suggested, with annual veggies growing along the perimeter.

 

08-17-2016 CTGTT Tansy is nice to look at but sure spreads quickly
As for the tansy, Meghan promises that it wasn’t something that she planted. She suggests never planting tansy, which is an ‘opportunistic’ plant, willing and able to spread itself with great vigor! Even though Meghan was cutting the plant down, and speaking on its prolific nature, Meghan emphasized the importance of keeping all of a system’s nutrients within the system. That means taking the tansy plant and laying it down as mulch. Meghan assured the class that even out diseased tomato leaves were okay to leave in the garden – healthy soil should be able to handle that plant’s disease. ‘Leave the detritus on the forest floor,’ she said. ‘It’s a little love shack for all the critters who live in the soil.’

As for the lesson on agroforesty, here’s what I gleaned:

An edible forest is designed using two parameters. One is structure, the layers that make up the forest composition. The second is plant archetypes, the polyculture that works together to create a nutrient rich system.

The agroforest is made up of an overstory, an understory, a shrub layer, an herbaceous layer, a rhizomatic layer, and a vining component. We quickly discovered that each of these categories are loose and relative to the other crops housed within the system. While the red currant bush is most commonly used in the shrub layer, it could easily serve as an overstory in an edible forest of a smaller scale.

With regard to the plants, there are three important archetypes to include: nitrogen fixers, dynamic accumulators, and insectaries & nectaries. Nitrogen fixers have the capacity to pull nitrogen out of the air and send it down into the soil, providing nitrogen for itself and allowing that nitrogen to be captured by nearby plants so long as its needs are met. Dynamic accumulators have long tap roots that reach down into the earth and pull nutrients up into the top soil where it can be accessed by shorter root systems. Nectaries keep non-desirable insects away, insectaries attract the beneficials. Meghan suggested that gardens and edible forests alike should have flowering plants through the length of the season. These flowers should be diverse in terms of color and shape so as to attract the greatest number of beneficial insects.

Week 13:What a key, the bumblebee

It’s a fruitful moment, rounding the corner to late summer now. With each visit to the garden, I am amazed by the generous green jungle that has emerged from the beds that were bare just three months ago.

08-08-16 CTGTT Winter squash is coming for you.JPG
We planted beans in the squash bed just one month ago. We planted the beans because our squash was taking a beating from a combination of squash bugs and cucumber beetles and we didn’t know if the squash plants would make it. We placed an aluminum foil barrier around the two little plants & hoped for the best. Here they are – bearing fruit and unwilling to stay within the confines of their bed. Carnival squash on the loose!
08-08-16 CTGTT HuskCherry.JPG
On a smaller note, but of a similar shape, the husk cherries have begun to fall from our two husk cherry plants. Sweeter than candy, with wrappers that will biodegrade, this fruit inspires curious conversation among its consumers — what is that flavor?

It’s easy to forget about the little things when the garden gets so big. The little things – those little pollinators so crucial to the fruit bearing wonder of the moment. For the tomato, the potato, the eggplant, and the blueberry, it takes a particular pollinator to unlock the pollen that facilitates the plant’s reproduction. According to biologist Anne Leonard, with buzz pollination, ‘the flower is almost like playing hard to get.’

Check this out

08-08-16 CTGTT Rainbow in the beneficial inset garden.JPG
Yes, we are delighting in the harvest and yes, we are clearing space for fall planting but this morning, watering our beneficial insect garden, I found myself thinking of the bees — relentless, buzzing, organized, clever, key.

Week 12: Calendulas: Edible and medicinal sunshine in the garden

Oh calendulas, they are such sweet burst of sunshine in the garden!  We have been diligently harvesting calendula flowers for the past few weeks at both Community Teaching Gardens.  We are dreaming of harvesting a generous quantity of calendula petals to eventually infuse in olive oil and make a healing salve.

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Take a good look at this botanical illustration of calendula.  Although commonly called “pot marigold”, these flowers are not marigolds!

The first step has been to properly harvest the blossoms to encourage more blossoms to come forth, which in gardening terms we call “deadheading”.

how to deadhead flowers
These are zinnias, (not calendulas!), but they also benefit from being deadheaded.

 

Here is a more detailed guide for deadheading flowers:

 

deadheading2
(We randomly found this great resource on the web, but did not find a reference…)

At the Tommy Thompson CTG site we have been joyfully harvesting from calendulas that self-seeded from last year and left us with an abundance of blossoms.

TT-Amy harvesting calendula  TT-Andrea harvesting calendula

After filling our baskets, we left the calendula blossoms to dry on an indoor drying rack for a couple of weeks.  On Saturday we pinched off the dry calendula petals, filled up a pint-sized mason jar, and then poured in enough olive oil to fully submerge the petals.  Now we will patiently wait for 4 weeks for the calendula to fully infuse the oil.

For those of you wanting to learn more about the medicinal properties of calendula, we share a posting by the Chestnut School of Herbal Medicine, “Calendula-Sunshine Incarnate – An Edible and Medicinal Flower”.

 

 

Week 11: Recipes, renewed compost & well fed rabbits

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The day of the potluck, an hour or so before the food and people arrive!

The CTG held our third potluck of the summer, this time at the Ethan Allen Homestead garden. Neighboring gardeners were invited along the students, teachers & friends – thus the tables were full of dishes! Such tasty dishes and engaging conversations that no one seemed to take the time to capture the experience with photos. This said, there are recipes to share instead.

A student, Hayley shared her recipe for vegan caeser salad. As the potluck was starting she visited a fellow gardener’s bed and with permission picked some greens to mix this dressing with.

vegan-caesar-salad
photo from website where the recipe used is located

vegan caesar recipe

Ingredients:

1/3 cup sliced or slivered almonds

1/3 cup hot water

1-2 cloves of garlic

1/4 cup olive oil

1 tsp dijon mustard

1 tsp rice vinegar

1 tbsp capers

1 head of your favorite lettuce

Croutons (if you want them!)

It’s really easy to make. Put the almonds and hot water in your blender and let them sit for at least 15 minutes. Then add the other ingredients and mix it up.

That’s all!

 

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squash, squash everywhere! What to do with it?

Well, Carolina shared a recipe for flourless zucchini brownies as a sweet way to use up some of the bounty. The brownies are quite tasty – and as in Hayley’s recipe, calls for almonds. However, I am sure you can replace almonds in both recipes with another nut/nut butter. There would be a slight change in taste, but both dishes would keep their integrity/texture.

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Compost is brought back to life (during the last few hours before sunset at the EA CTG)

The students learned about compost this week as we reactivated one compost bin, pictured above. Though a few students were already well-informed in the subject, it was an exciting step to further round our community garden practices and lessen waste.

Carolina explained that “brown” materials such as dried/dead plants are carbon-rich whereas “green” materials such as plant-based kitchen scraps (including egg shells and dairy waste) are nitrogen rich. The green plants (yard clippings, weeds etc) added will bring the much-needed chlorophyll into the mix. All this, plus soil and likely some water, is what a compost consists of!

The following link has useful information on small batch composting

 urban composting

It will be exciting to see how the compost progresses over months as it sits under a layer of hay and generates heat within.

Now, though the compost gets almost all of the garden waste (and some home waste) – the pets are enjoying some of it as well.

Below is a photo from Ute…

Ute, Nanook and Sushi munching on greens and beets
Nanook and Sushi munching on Ute’s bitter greens

Here we have Chris’s ducks enjoying some grated squash and then Alex’s bunnies, who are looking quite confused about their squash gift.

 

Week 10: For the cabbage that longed to be a sea flower.

Of all the shared beds at the Tommy Thompson teaching garden, I have a soft spot for the cabbage patch. It was one of the first beds we planted – a row of green conehead cabbage on one side, a red cabbage row on the other. As the season went on, we planted a row of beans down the center – offering a wonderful combination of color on the thin growth of the bean stalk to contrast the sturdy round of a head of cabbage. What I love about the bed though, is within the red cabbage row itself – eight heads of cabbage, all of which were planted on the same day, from the same tray of starts, into the same bed, tended by the same gardener with the same regularity and yet, demonstrating the entire spectrum of growth.

07-21-16 CTGTT The famous cabbage bed
                   For me, this is the ultimate lesson of the teaching garden.                                                       What explains the variation in growth when all variables are kept the same?
07-16-16 CTGTT Cabbage patch.jpg
There’s nature, there’s nurture, and then there is the unique personality of each plant.    This cabbage on the top left is testament to the fact that there are some cabbages who simply long to be sea flowers.

I’ve loved this cabbage bed as a reminder of the unpredictability of the garden. It is a comfort on days when my own bed shows distress and it is humbling when I begin to take credit for the growth of what I’ve planted.

As it goes in the garden, even our favorite beds have their time. And this was the time of the cabbage bed:

07-21-16 CTGTT Cabbage holding wedding party.JPG

07-21-16 CTGTT How many heads?

Alas, with communal cabbage harvest, there comes communal sauerkraut:

07-21-16 CTGTT Shredded cabbage.JPG

07-21-16 CTGTT Kraut

Week 9: Visiting neighboring gardens and a great variety of medicinal plants

The week started with walking garden tours led by three folks involved in our neighboring community garden spaces.

07-05-16 CTGEA - Line of students passing through NewFarms

Bonnie led the class through community garden plots rented out through Burlington Parks and Recreation. She explained that a portion of these plots are part of the “family room” – a garden-based program for parents and children. A program which, some years ago, she and her children were involved in.

Alisha, a UVM student who is working with New Farms for New Americans led us over the hill and into the fields of many refugee and immigrant Vermont families. This space is a project of the Association of Africans Living in Vermont (AALV) and its mission is to promote digdity and equal opportunity through farming.

Derek, a recent CTG graduate, led the class around the Discovery Garden. We learned that this garden was previously focused on children’s education, but is now a space for the community at large. We finished by picking out some horseradish roots from a communal space and almost everyone happily chewed on one.

Read more about the first two spaces, among others, here: Burlington Area Community Gardens

and an article on the Discovery Garden here: New Discovery Garden

 

06-29-16 CTGTT Golden Kate offers plants for tasting
Herbalist, Kate Elmer, visited students at Tommy Thompson last week

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This week she spent time at the Ethan Allen CTG, sharing her knowledge about herbalism and the medicinal plants surrounding our garden.

One of the plants we stopped by to talk about was right beneath our feet, plantain. Though considered a weed or grass to mow by many, it is actually a useful herb. Medicinal folklore, science, and many more sources I am sure, explain that plaintain can be used externally as a remedy for rashes or cuts and even insect or snake bites.

Open the following link for a salve recipe: Plantain Medicinal Uses and Recipe

Yes, plantain can be collected and added to salves or balms but it can also be used quite simply. Kate explained the “chew and spit” method. This is as it sounds –  chewing up the leaves and then spitting this liquid/pulp onto the wound or rash.

Plantain is a simple perennial that propagates by seed.

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Narrow Leaf Plantain

 

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Broad Leaf Plantain

 

Another common weed we learned aboutwas Vermont’s state flower: the red clover.

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Do you see the two with four leaves?

Learn more about red clover here: Red Clover as Herbal Medicine and even more detail here: Medical Center – Red Clover

We also found a herb called yarrow in the garden. It is pictured below, one flowering and the other with only its segmented leaves.

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Yarrow, in one of our shared plots

 

Kate showed us that this plant also grows in great abudance in the fields outside of the garden. She explained that yarrow can be used internally for helping (or even breaking) fevers, or externally as a poultice for bruises, rashes, swelling and so on.

Finally, week 9 seemed to bring all pea varieties to life! The ornimental peas flowered while the shelling peas and snap peas burst bright, full and delicious.

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Shelling Pea

Week Eight: Brunch Potluck – Followed by days of rain & vibrant colors

06-25-16 CTGTT Brunch spread
A gorgeous breakfast spread at Tommy Thompson – a start to week eight by displaying creative uses of week seven harvest!

To the far right on the bottom of the photo are muffins made by student, Haley. She sent the recipe shortly thereafter:

Love Muffins

Ingredients:

(wet)

1 tbsp ground flax seed (mixed with 2 tbsp water)

3 tbsp coconut oil

1 tsp vanilla extract

1 15 oz. can of white beans, drained and rinsed, or the same amount prepared by you and not from a can

(dry)

1 cup of your favorite flour (can be wheat or gluten free blend)

1/2 a cup of sugar or something sweet you like

1/4 tsp salt

2 tsp baking powder

Possible garden additions: strawberry slices, raspberries, chopped up lemon balm

A savory garden option: replace half of the sugar with a handful of chopped up savory herbs and a bit of garlic or cheese

How to:

-Preheat your oven to 350 and lightly grease your muffin tin with oil.

-Mix the wet ingredients plus 3 or so tbsp of water in a blender or food processor.

-Mix the dry ingredients in the bowl.

-Fold the wet ingredients into the dry ingredients with a wooden spoon, stirring as little as possible. I had to add more water here– if it is very clumpy, add some in!

-Mix in additions

-Bake for 20-26 minutes

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Icecubes from the potluck with Johnny Jump Up flowers frozen inside

 

Also known as violas or pansies, these flowers may almost obnoxiously take over garden beds but they sure do taste lovely when melted into an iced drink on a hot day.

 

Below are photos of flowers, peas, and a peaking tomatillo, all replenished and grateful for the on and off days of rain..

 

 

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california poppy opens up

 

06-21-16 CTGEA Strawberry red, a summer harvest!

Strawberries from Ethan Allen